The Government of Ethiopia is structured in a framework of a federal parliamentary republic, whereby the Prime Minister is the head of government. Executive power is exercised by the government. The prime minister is chosen by the parliament. Federal legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament. The Judiciary is more or less independent of the executive and the legislature. They are governed under the 1995 Constitution of Ethiopia. There is a bicameral parliament made of the 108-seat house of federation and the 547-seat House of Peoples Representatives. The house of federation has members chosen by the state assemblies to serve five year terms. The house of peoples’ representatives is elected by direct election, which in turn elects the president for a six-year term.
|• Form of government
||The Federal Republic (Parliamentary government)|
|• Head of state||Sahle-Work Zewde (President)|
|• Head of the federal government
||Abiy Ahmed (Prime Minister)|
|• Foreign policy
||Respect of mutual sovereignty, nonintervention policy|
|• Staple for imports
||Food, livestock, oil, chemicals, machinery etc.|
|• Headquarters of international organizations
||Joining of the international organizations like UN. AU, IMF, IBRD, IDA, AFDB etc.|
|• Military troops||183,500 soldiers(20,000 people were non-emergency)|
In Ethiopia, the climate varies mostly with altitude, and it goes from the hot and arid climate of the lowlands to the cool climate of the plateau. Lying just north of the Equator, the country experiences little variation in temperature throughout the year.
Rainfall is caused by the southwest monsoon, which affects the country from June to September (the rainy season is called Kiremt), but it only affects some areas, namely the plateau and the mountain slopes exposed to the south-west, while in the south-east of the country, there are two rainy periods, though less intense, usually from March to May and in October-November; in the latter area, during some years, the rains don’t occur at all.
The climate is traditionally divided into three main climatic zones: Dega, Weyna Dega and Kolla. The first of these – Dega – refers to coldish, less than temperate zones with altitudes ranging between 2,600 and 3,200m. The second zone – Weyna Dega – is warm, wet and lies below 2,600m.
|The Highlands has a mountain climate. Generally it is mild and a change of climate is rare.|
|A climate of high temperature and humidity is seen in the lowland.|
|Addis Ababa’s average range of temperature for the year is 11~23 degrees.|
|Average temperature for the year in the lowlands is about 28 degrees.|
|A Rain in Ethiopia is influenced by southwesterly winds.|
The economy of Ethiopia is based on agriculture, which accounts for 46.3% of gross domestic product (GDP), 60% of exports, and 80% of total employment. Yet agriculture is the country’s most promising resource.
||96.11 Billion USD (2019)|
|• Per capital GDP||602.20 USD (2019)|
|• Currency Birr (ETB)||1 USD = 44 ETB (2021)|
|• Chief items for export
||Coffee, gold, leather products, livestock, oilseeds etc.|
|• Chief items of imports||Food, livestock, oil, chemicals, machiner etc.|
|• Economical strengths||Potential for farming industry|
|• Economical weakness||Insufficient natural resources, unstable politics|
|• Capital||Coffee, gold, leather products, livestock, oilseeds etc.|
The education policy believed strongly with the idea of education as a vehicle of progress and economic development.
|The curriculum of Ethiopia : 6 years(elementary school), 4 years(middle school), 2 years(high school).|
|Adult literacy rate female 44.42% male 59.24%(2017)|
|percentage of school attendance for elementary school (2020) – 78%|
|percentage of school attendance for middle school(2006) -34.7%|
|The percentage of attendance has rapidly increased since 1992.|
|At the end of 2005~2006, the number of students in elementary school is 13,479,674 (1,066,423 students at middle school / 123,638 students at high school)|
|On the other hand, various foreign schools provide kindergarten, elementary and middle school education, which meets the international standards.|